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Testing limits

Powerful structural trends are testing limits – and threaten to intersect with the near-term outlook and become market drivers.

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People of Blackrock
Kurt Reiman
Chief Investment Strategist, BlackRock Canada

"One of the things we’ve worked hard to do is to bring this broad platform of investment views that we have globally to our clients in Canada."

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This video does not constitute a recommendation by BlackRock, or an offer to sell, or a solicitation of any offer to buy or sell any securities, product or service.

People of Blackrock
Andrew Ang
Head of Factor Investing Strategies

"I think factors are going to be transformative but in order for them to be very widespread, we need data and technology."

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This video does not constitute a recommendation by BlackRock, or an offer to sell, or a solicitation of any offer to buy or sell any securities, product or service.

People of Blackrock
Rick Rieder
Chief Investment Officer and Co-Head of Global Fixed Income

"We're going through a technology revolution, the likes of which nobody's ever seen before."

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This video does not constitute a recommendation by BlackRock, or an offer to sell, or a solicitation of any offer to buy or sell any securities, product or service.

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Privacy Policy

Investment Advisor

I am registered or I represent an entity that is registered under the securities legislation of a jurisdiction of Canada either as (i) an investment dealer (in which case, I am also registered with the Investment Industry Regulatory Organization of Canada or Mutual Fund Dealers Association of Canada); or (ii) a portfolio manager. Alternatively, I am registered or I represent an entity organized in a foreign jurisdiction that is registered in a category that is analogous to (i) or (ii) above. I am a fiduciary.


Institutional Investor

I represent an organization or entity, including banks, insurance companies, governmental entities, investment funds, pension funds regulated by either the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions (Canada) or a pension commission of a jurisdiction of Canada and/or any other entity, with net assets of at least $25 million. Alternatively, I am registered as an advising representative of a portfolio manager that manages portfolios for the above-mentioned institutional entities. I satisfy the eligibility criteria for an institutional investor set forth in the Terms & Conditions.


Individual Investor

I am a resident of a province or territory of Canada and I (a) manage my own portfolio, (b) am accessing this site in my personal capacity and/or (c) do not otherwise qualify as an investment advisor or institutional investor.






Nothing contained on this Website constitutes tax, accounting, regulatory, legal, insurance or investment advice. Neither the information, nor any opinion, contained on this Website constitutes a solicitation or offer by BlackRock or its affiliates to buy or sell any securities, futures, options or other financial instruments, nor shall any such security be offered or sold to any person in any jurisdiction in which such offer, solicitation, purchase, or sale would be unlawful under the securities laws of such jurisdiction. Decisions based on information contained on this Website are the sole responsibility of the visitor. In exchange for using this Website, the visitor agrees to indemnify and hold BlackRock, its officers, directors, employees, affiliates, agents, licensors and suppliers harmless against any and all claims, losses, liability, costs and expenses (including but not limited to attorneys' fees) arising from your use of this Website, from your violation of these Terms or from any decisions that the visitor makes based on such information.


The investments and strategies discussed in the Website may not be suitable for all investors and are not obligations of BlackRock or its affiliates or guaranteed by BlackRock or its affiliates. BlackRock makes no representations that the contents are appropriate for use in all locations, or that the transactions, securities, products, instruments, or services discussed on this site are available or appropriate for sale or use in all jurisdictions or countries, or by all investors or counterparties. By making available information on the Website, BlackRock does not represent that any investment vehicle is available or suitable for any particular user. All persons and entities accessing the Website do so on their own initiative and are responsible for compliance with applicable local laws and regulations.


All investments involve risk and may lose value. The value of your investment can go down depending upon market conditions. Fixed income investments are subject to risk including interest rate, credit, market and issuer risk. Currency exchange rates may cause the value of an investment to go up or down. Alternative strategies involve higher risks than traditional investments, may not be tax efficient, and have higher fees than traditional investments; they may also be highly leveraged and engage in speculative investment techniques, which can magnify the potential for investment loss or gain. BEFORE ACQUIRING THE UNITS OF ANY INVESTMENT FUND BY PURCHASE OR EXCHANGE, IT IS YOUR RESPONSIBILITY TO READ THE FUND'S PROSPECTUS OR OFFERING MATERIALS.


This Website is for information purposes only and is not intended to be relied upon as a forecast, research or investment advice. The information on this Website does not constitute a recommendation, offer or solicitation to buy or sell any securities or to adopt any investment strategy. Although this material is based upon information that BlackRock considers reliable and endeavors to keep current, BlackRock does not assure that this material is accurate, current or complete, and it should not be relied upon as such. Any opinions expressed on this Website may change as subsequent conditions vary. Past performance is no guarantee of future results.


The information and services provided on this Website are provided "AS IS" and without warranties of any kind, either expressed or implied. To the fullest extent permissible pursuant to applicable law, BlackRock disclaims all warranties, including, but not limited to, any warranty of non-infringement of third-party rights and any implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. BlackRock does not warrant, either expressly or impliedly, the accuracy or completeness of the information, text, graphics, links or other items contained on this Website and does not warrant that the functions contained in this Website will be uninterrupted or error-free, that defects will be corrected, or that the Website will be free of viruses or other harmful components. BlackRock expressly disclaims all liability for errors and omissions in the materials on this Website and for the use or interpretation by others of information contained on the Website.


Institutional Investors

An institutional investor will have access to certain information on this site that is not available to investment advisors or individual investors. In order to access information on this website that is addressed to institutional investors, you must qualify as one of the following:


1. a Canadian financial institution, or a Schedule III bank;
2. the Business Development Bank of Canada incorporated under the Business Development Bank of Canada Act (Canada); 
3. a subsidiary of any person referred to in paragraph (a) or (b), if the person owns all of the voting securities of the subsidiary, except voting securities required by law to be owned by directors of that subsidiary; 
4. a person registered under the securities legislation of a jurisdiction of Canada as an adviser, investment dealer, mutual fund dealer or exempt market dealer; 
5. an individual registered or formerly registered under the securities legislation of a jurisdiction of Canada as a representative of a person referred to in paragraph (4) above; 
6. the Government of Canada or a jurisdiction of Canada, or any crown corporation, agency or wholly owned entity of the Government of Canada or a jurisdiction of Canada; 
7. a municipality, public board or commission in Canada and a metropolitan community, school board, the Comité de gestion de la taxe scolaire de l'île de Montréal or an intermunicipal management board in Québec; 
8. a pension fund that is regulated by either the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions (Canada) or a pension commission or similar regulatory authority of a jurisdiction of Canada or a wholly-owned subsidiary of such a pension fund; 
9. a person, other than an individual or investment fund, that has net assets of at least $25,000,000 as shown on its most recently prepared financial statements; 
10. an investment fund if one or both of the following apply:
i. the fund is managed by a person or company registered as an investment fund manager under the securities legislation of a jurisdiction of Canada;
ii. the fund is advised by a person or company authorized to act as an adviser under the securities legislation of a jurisdiction of Canada; 
11. an investment fund that distributes or has distributed securities under a prospectus in a jurisdiction of Canada for which the regulator or, in Québec, the securities regulatory authority, has issued a receipt; 
12. a trust company or trust corporation registered or authorized to carry on business under the Trust and Loan Companies Act (Canada) or under comparable legislation in a jurisdiction of Canada, acting on behalf of a fully managed account managed by the trust company or trust corporation, as the case may be; 
13. a person acting on behalf of a fully managed account managed by that person, if that person (i) is registered or authorized to carry on business as an adviser or the equivalent under the securities legislation of a jurisdiction of Canada or a foreign jurisdiction, and (ii) in Ontario, is purchasing a security that is not a security of an investment fund; 
14. a registered charity under the Income Tax Act (Canada) that, in regard to the trade, has obtained advice from an eligibility adviser or an adviser registered under the securities legislation of the jurisdiction of the registered charity to give advice on the securities being traded; 
15. an entity organized in a foreign jurisdiction that is analogous to any of the entities referred to in paragraphs (a) to (d) or paragraph (i) in form and function; 
16. a person in respect of which all of the owners of interests, direct, indirect or beneficial, except the voting securities required by law to be owned by directors, are persons that are accredited investors; 
17. a person or company acting on behalf of a managed account managed by the person or company, if the person or company is registered or authorized to carry on business as an adviser or the equivalent under the securities legislation of a jurisdiction of Canada or a foreign jurisdiction; or 
18. a person that is recognized or designated by the securities regulatory authority, or, except in Ontario and Québec, the regulator as an accredited investor.


If you do not qualify under one of the preceding categories, you are not permitted to access the institutional investor section of this website.


Fund Disclosures

iShares® ETFs, BlackRock mutual funds and Big Bank Big Oil Split Corp. are managed by BlackRock Asset Management Canada Limited.  Commissions, trailing commissions, management fees and expenses all may be associated with investing in iShares ETFs.  Please read the relevant prospectus before investing.  The indicated rates of return are the historical annual compounded total returns including changes in unit value and reinvestment of all distributions and do not take into account sales, redemption, distribution or operational charges or income taxes payable by any securityholder that would have reduced returns.  The funds are not guaranteed, their values change frequently and past performance may not be repeated.  Tax, investment and all other decisions should be made, as appropriate, only with guidance from a qualified professional.


The iShares Premium Money Market ETF (CMR) is managed by BlackRock Asset Management Canada Limited.  Commissions, trailing commissions, management fees and expenses all may be associated with investing in the fund.  Please read the relevant prospectus before investing.  Fund securities are not covered by the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation or by any other government deposit insurer.  There can be no assurances that the fund will be able to maintain its net asset value per security at a constant amount or that the full amount of your investment in the fund will be returned to you.  The fund is not guaranteed, its value changes frequently and past performance may not be repeated. Tax, investment and all other decisions should be made, as appropriate, only with guidance from a qualified professional.


The funds are not insured by the Canadian Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other entity.


Important information about each of the funds is contained in their current applicable prospectus and should be read before investing. Copies of the prospectuses may be obtained from dealers who may lawfully offer the funds in your province or territory. You are able to download the relevant prospectus by clicking here.


The content of this site is meant to inform investors, potential investors and their intermediaries, and does not constitute an offer or a solicitation to anyone in the United States of America, United Kingdom or in any other jurisdiction in which such an offer or solicitation is not authorized or to any person to whom it is unlawful to make such an offer or solicitation.  The Canadian iShares ETFs are not registered under the securities laws of the United States of America, the United Kingdom or any other jurisdiction outside of Canada.  In Canada, the funds are available for purchase by investors resident only in those provinces and territories where they may legally be purchased.


Rates of return shown in this site are used only to illustrate the effects of the compound growth rate and are not intended to reflect future values of the iShares ETFs or returns on investment in the iShares ETFs.


Projections and examples (including calculations used therein) are for illustrative purposes only and are not guaranteed to be accurate or complete. The data and calculations contained in the "Brokers and Dealers" section, as applicable, are believed to be accurate, but no assurance can be given in this regard.


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Links to Other Websites

BlackRock may establish links between this Website and one or more websites operated by third parties. BlackRock has no control over any such other websites, the contents therein or the products/services offered. The existence of any such links shall not constitute an endorsement of, or representation or warranty by BlackRock regarding such websites, the contents of the websites, the products or services of the websites or the operators of the websites. Your access to and use of such linked websites is governed by the terms of use and privacy policies of those sites, and shall be at your own risk. BlackRock disclaims responsibility for the privacy policies and customer information practices of third-party internet websites hyperlinked from our Website.


Links to BlackRock from Other Websites

You shall not display hyperlinks on your websites to any website owned or operated by BlackRock. If you desire to display on your website a hyperlink to a BlackRock website, you must enter into a written agreement with BlackRock governing such display. Access to any BlackRock website does not authorize you to use any of BlackRock's names, logos, trademarks or copyrighted material, and you agree not to do so without BlackRock's express written consent. Requests to display hyperlinks on your websites to BlackRock websites should be e-mailed to


Transmissions to and From this Website

Electronic communications can be intercepted by third parties and, accordingly, transmissions to and from this Website may not be secure. Communications to BlackRock, particularly those containing confidential information, may be sent by mail to: BlackRock, Inc., 40 East 52nd Street, New York, NY 10022, Attn: Webmaster. BlackRock shall be free to use, for any purpose, any ideas, concepts, know-how, or techniques provided by a website user to BlackRock through this Website. You acknowledge and agree that BlackRock has granted you limited access to the specific files pertaining to the BlackRock Funds ("Approved Files"), and you agree not to attempt to access computer files other than the Approved Files. BlackRock makes no warranty to you regarding the security of the Website, including with regard to the ability of any unauthorized persons to access information received or transmitted by you through or from the Website. BlackRock reserves the right to cease providing, or to change, this Website and content of such information (or any portion or feature thereof) at any time or frequency and without notice.


Account and Transaction Information on this Website

Certain BlackRock clients may access account information, including transactions, through this Website. Account information is unaudited unless noted otherwise, may be based on estimates. Do not make any investment decisions based on such information as it is subject to change.


Privacy Policy

Please review our Privacy Policy, which is a part of this Agreement and hereby incorporated by reference, to learn about our information collection practices and the measures we take to preserve the privacy and security of your information.


Jurisdiction and Governing Law

The information provided on this Website is not intended for distribution to, or use by, any person or entity in any jurisdiction or country where such distribution or use would be contrary to law or regulation or which would subject BlackRock or its affiliates to any registration requirement within such jurisdiction or country. Each investment product and service referred to on this Website is intended to be made available to only residents of a jurisdiction of Canada. This Website will not be considered a solicitation for or offering of any investment product or service to any person in any jurisdiction where such solicitation or offering would be illegal.


The laws of the State of New York govern these Terms without regard to conflict of law provisions. If you take legal action relating to these Terms, you agree to file such action only in the New York State Supreme Court located in New York, NY, or the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, and you consent and submit to the personal jurisdiction of those courts for the purpose of litigating any action with BlackRock, its affiliates or with any funds referenced in this site.


Limitation of Liability





Timeliness of Content

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• Use this Website in any manner that could damage or overburden any BlackRock server, or any network connected to any BlackRock server, as all servers have limited capacity and are used by many people;

• Use this Website in any manner that would interfere with another party's use of the Website;

• Include the term "BlackRock", “iShares” or any BlackRock trademark or executive's name, or any variation of the foregoing, as a meta-tag, hidden textual element;

• Use any robot, spider, intelligent agent, other automatic device, or manual process to search, monitor or copy this Website or the reports, data, information, content, software, products services, or other materials on, generated by or obtained from this Website, whether through links or otherwise (collectively, "Materials"), without BlackRock's permission, provided that generally available third-party web browsers may be used without such permission; or

• Use this Website or the Materials in any manner that could create impression of affiliation, sponsorship or endorsement by BlackRock.


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Unauthorized Use of Content

You agree to defend, indemnify and hold harmless BlackRock, its affiliates and each of their respective officers, directors, members, partners, managers and employees against any losses, damages, claims, liabilities and costs (including reasonable attorneys’ fees) to the extent resulting from or arising out of any unauthorized or otherwise inappropriate use of any of the content of this Website attributable to you or which occurs through the use of your ID.


System Outages and Incomplete Transmissions

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BlackRock may terminate your access to the Website for any reason, without prior notice.



No waiver by BlackRock of any right under or term or provision of these Terms will be deemed a waiver of any other right, term, or provision of these Terms at the time of such waiver or a waiver of that or any other right, term, or provision of these Terms at any other time.


Integration and Severability

If any provision of these Terms is deemed unlawful, void, or for any reason unenforceable, then that provision will be deemed severable from these Terms and will not affect the validity and enforceability of the remaining provisions.


The preceding Terms of use represent the entire agreement between BlackRock and the user relating to the subject matter herein.


BlackRock is an equal opportunity employer committed to diversity in the workplace.


Dated: August 2014

© 2016 BlackRock, Inc. All rights reserved. BLACKROCK and iSHARES are registered and unregistered trademarks of BlackRock, Inc. or its subsidiaries in the United States and elsewhere. All other trademarks are those of their respective owners.





This policy sets out a set of principles respecting the manner in which BlackRock Asset Management Canada Limited (“BlackRock Canada”) protects the privacy of the personal information of its clients. BlackRock Canada is subject to the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA), which contains the following key elements:

  • BlackRock Canada must obtain an individual’s consent when it collects, uses or discloses the individual’s personal information.
  • The individual has a right to access personal information held by BlackRock Canada and to challenge its accuracy, if need be.
  • Personal Information can only be used for the purposes for which it was collected. If BlackRock Canada is going to use personal information for another purpose, consent must be obtained again. Individuals should also be assured that their personal information will be protected by appropriate safeguards.


The policy:

1. provides principles for the management of personal information; and

2. specifies the minimum requirements for the adequate protection of personal information held by BlackRock Canada.



This policy describes the minimum requirements for the protection of personal information held, collected or used by BlackRock Canada. Any applicable legislation must be considered in implementing these requirements.

This policy applies to “personal information” relating to “clients” as defined in Section 3.

The objective of this policy is to assist BlackRock Canada and all of its employees in developing and implementing policies and practices to be used when managing personal information.



The following definitions apply in this policy:


BlackRock” – BlackRock, Inc., the ultimate parent company of BlackRock Canada, BlackRock Canada and its affiliates collectively.


client” – persons about whom BlackRock Canada collects personal information in carrying out its business, and includes persons who have dealt with or intend to deal with BlackRock Canada, and any other person who has contacted BlackRock Canada and provided his or her own personal information to BlackRock Canada.


collection” -- the act of gathering, acquiring or obtaining personal information from any source, including from third parties, by any means.


corporate client” – clients other than individuals. Without limiting the foregoing this includes clients structured as corporations, partnerships, joint ventures, trusts, associations, unincorporated organizations, governmental authorities or any other entity recognized by law.


consent” -- voluntary agreement with what is being done or proposed. Consent can be either express or implied. Express consent is given explicitly, either orally or in writing. Express consent is unequivocal and does not require any inference on the part of BlackRock Canada. Implied consent arises where consent may reasonably be inferred from the action or inaction of the client.


control” -- BlackRock Canada controls personal information if the personal information is in the possession of BlackRock Canada or a person to whom BlackRock Canada has disclosed the personal information, excluding a person to whom such disclosure was required by law.


disclosure” -- making personal information available to others outside BlackRock Canada.


person” -- shall be broadly interpreted and includes an individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, association, unincorporated organization, any governmental authority or any other entity recognized by law.


personal information” -- information about an identifiable client (if that client is an individual) or information about an identifiable individual acting on behalf of a corporate client but does not include the name, title or business address or telephone number of an employee, officer, trustee or other representative of a corporate client.


Commentary. This definition of “personal information” includes information about an individual client or about any other individual if the client or other individual is identifiable as the subject of the information, but does not include aggregate information that cannot be associated with a specific client or individual. "Personal information" may include, but is not limited to, an individual's name, social insurance number, address, telephone number, e-mail address, date of birth, family status, marital status, occupation, assets, investments, liabilities, income, credit rating, opinions and evaluations.

use” -- treatment and handling of personal information within BlackRock.



The ten principles that make up this policy are interrelated. Each principle is followed by a commentary. The commentaries are intended to help employees of BlackRock Canada understand the significance and the implications of the principles. Prescriptive language used herein (that is, words like “shall” or “must”) are requirements. The use of the word “should” indicates a recommendation. Use of the singular does not exclude the plural (and vice versa) when the sense allows.



5.1. Accountability

BlackRock Canada is responsible for personal information under its control and for establishing and implementing policies and practices for the appropriate collection, retention and use of the personal information.

BlackRock Canada’s senior management committee or BlackRock Canada’s Chief Compliance Officer shall designate one or more individuals who shall be accountable for BlackRock’s compliance with the principles set out in the policy (the “Responsible Individuals”). The identity of the Responsible Individuals shall be available to BlackRock Canada employees and clients upon request.


BlackRock Canada is responsible for personal information in its possession, custody or control, including information that has been transferred to a third party for processing. Prior to disclosing any personal information to any third party, BlackRock Canada shall use contractual or other means to provide a comparable level of protection while the personal information is in the possession, custody or control of a third party. Prior to the release of any personal information to a third party, a Responsible Individual shall be consulted to ensure appropriate levels of protection are in place, to the extent necessary.


The Responsible Individual shall coordinate the implementation of policies and practices to give effect to the principles, including:

  • documenting personal information handling practices, including:

    • the type of personal information we collect;
    • the reason for collecting the information;
    • the way we use the information;
    • where the information is kept, and how it is secured;
    • who has access to or uses it; and
    • when the information is disposed of.
  • implementing procedures to protect personal information;
  • establishing procedures to receive and respond to complaints and enquiries; and
  • make information available explaining our privacy policy to clients.


5.2. Identifying Purposes

The purposes for which personal information is collected shall be identified to the client by BlackRock Canada before or at the time the information is collected.

The purposes for which personal information is collected shall be documented by the person collecting such information in order to comply with this policy.

Identifying the purposes for which personal information is collected at or before the time of collection allows BlackRock Canada to determine the information it needs to collect to fulfill these purposes. BlackRock Canada should only collect information that is necessary and appropriate for the purposes that have been identified.

The identified purposes should be specified at or before the time of collection to the client from whom the personal information is collected. Depending upon the way in which the information is collected, this can be done orally or in writing. An application form, pamphlet, website notice or other suitable media, for example, may give notice of the purposes for which personal information is being collected.

When personal information that has been collected is to be used for a purpose not previously identified, the new purpose shall be identified before use. Unless the new purpose is required by law, the consent of the client is required before personal information can be used for that purpose.

Employees collecting personal information should be able to explain to clients or other identifiable individuals, the purposes for which the information is being collected.


5.3. Consent

The knowledge and consent of the client are required for the collection, use, or disclosure of personal information, except as provided in this principle.


Commentary: In certain circumstances, express consent need not be obtained from a client before such client’s personal information is collected, used, or disclosed. For example, legal or security reasons may make it impossible or impractical to seek consent. In addition, BlackRock Canada may not be able to seek consent because it does not have a direct relationship with the client. However, when most information is being collected (including financial information) BlackRock Canada must obtain express consent from the client. Consent is not required for the collection, use and disclosure of personal information for legal or security reasons such as the collection of personal information for the detection and prevention of fraud or compliance with subpoenas, search warrants, and other court, regulatory or government orders, where obtaining consent might defeat the purpose of collecting the information.


Commentary. The process by which BlackRock Canada receives client consent must include a mechanism which permits a client to indicate that the client does not consent to the sharing of information for collateral purposes, i.e. to market other products, as opposed to satisfying BlackRock’s “know your client” obligations.


Consent is required for the collection of personal information and the subsequent use or disclosure of this information. Consent must be obtained for the use or disclosure of the information at the time of collection. In certain circumstances, consent with respect to use or disclosure may be sought after the information has been collected but before use (for example, when a new purpose for previously gathered information is identified).


The principle requires “knowledge and consent”. Reasonable effort shall be made to ensure that the client is advised of the purposes for which the personal information will be used. To make the consent meaningful, the purposes must be stated in such a manner that the individual can reasonably understand how the personal information will be used or disclosed. In obtaining consent, the reasonable expectations of the client or other identifiable individual are also relevant.


Clients shall not be required, as a condition of the supply of a product or service, to consent to the collection, use, or disclosure of personal information beyond that required to fulfill the explicitly specified purposes. The client must be informed of all information requirements that are related to the product or service. Doing so ensures that a specified, explicit and legitimate purpose has been identified for the client. As a result, BlackRock can then refuse to deal with a client who will not consent to the collection, use and disclosure of the personal information for the specified, explicit and legitimate purpose. For example, laws may require BlackRock Canada to obtain certain personal information so as to carry out its responsibilities to its clients. If this personal information is not obtained, BlackRock Canada cannot determine the suitability of investments and, therefore, cannot provide the investment advice sought by the client. Consent shall not be obtained through deception.


The form of the consent sought by BlackRock Canada may vary, depending upon the circumstances and the type of personal information. In determining the form of consent to use, BlackRock Canada shall take into account the sensitivity of the personal information. Express consent should be used whenever possible and in all cases when the personal information is considered sensitive.


A client, at the time of providing any personal information and upon completion of an investment management agreement/transition agreement, must be advised as to the specific uses and by whom the personal information given in such form may be used. At such time, the client must expressly consent to such uses. The degree of specificity of such description may vary depending upon the personal information shared. For example, if only the name and address is given out to BlackRock Canada for the purposes of mailing generic marketing materials, then less specificity is required. On the other hand, if it is intended that personal information is used to create targeted, personally tailored marketing materials then greater specificity would be required. BlackRock Canada should generally seek express consent of the client or identifiable individual to the collection, use and disclosure of personal information about that individual.


Consent can also be given by an authorized representative (such as a corporate officer, trustee legal guardian or a person having power of attorney).

Clients can give consent in many ways. For example:

  • an application form may be used to seek consent, collect personal information, and inform the client of the use that will be made of the personal information. By completing and signing the form, the client is giving consent to the collection and the specified uses;
  • a check-off box may be used to allow clients to request that certain or all personal information not be given to third parties. Clients who do not check the box are assumed to consent to the transfer of this personal information to third parties for specified purposes;
  • consent may be given orally when personal information is collected over the telephone, provided that BlackRock Canada reasonably verifies the identity of the person giving consent over the telephone;
  • consent may be given at the time that clients request or use a product or service; or
  • consent may be given electronically over the Internet or by other electronic means, if the client can be reliably identified as the source of such consent.

A client may withdraw consent at any time, subject to legal or contractual restrictions and reasonable notice. BlackRock Canada shall inform the client of the implications of such withdrawal. Absent any such withdrawal, consent is valid for the length of time needed to achieve the identified purposes.


5.4. Limiting Collection

The collection of personal information shall be limited to that which is necessary for the purposes identified by BlackRock Canada. Information shall be collected by fair and lawful means.


Commentary. Personal information should only be collected if necessary. For example, BlackRock Canada may collect personal information in order to satisfy its obligation to know its clients. To satisfy that obligation, they will collect information about a client’s financial situation and, if applicable, relevant personal data, such as family size and SIN number, in order to comply with the requirements of Canada Revenue Agency. However, there is no need to obtain a health card number or information about the client’s political affiliations.

Commentary.These requirements apply not only to documents such as a client’s account application form or investment management agreement, but also to notes or memoranda maintained by BlackRock Canada made as a result of discussions and correspondence with the client.

Commentary.Note that the use of personal information for financial profiling, without having previously disclosed to the client that the information would be used for that purpose, would not preclude such use, provided any personal identifying data was not included in the undisclosed use. For example, use of financial information to generate statistics about a typical investor profile.

BlackRock Canada shall not collect personal information indiscriminately. Both the amount and the type of information collected shall be limited to that which is necessary to fulfil the purposes identified. BlackRock Canada may obtain personal information from clients through hard copy, electronic or other means, but also from other sources, including but not limited to investment dealers, custodians or other third parties who represent that they have the right to disclose the information.


BlackRock Canada shall collect personal information from third parties only with the consent of the client or identifiable individual concerned, unless the collection is clearly in the interests of the individual and consent cannot be obtained in a timely way, it is reasonable to expect that the collection with the knowledge of the client or identifiable individual would compromise the availability or accuracy of the information and the collection is reasonable for purposes relating to investigating a breach of an agreement or a contravention of law, or the information is publicly available and is specified by the regulations to PIPEDA. BlackRock Canada shall specify the type of information collected as part of its information-handling policies and practices.


5.5. Limiting Use, Disclosure & Retention


Personal information shall not be used or transferred for purposes other than those for which the information was collected, except with the consent of the client or as required by law. Personal information shall be retained only as long as necessary for the fulfillment of those purposes.


There are situations specific to the investment management business where investment funds, investment fund management companies, dealers and service providers will transfer personal information that is necessary in the course of providing their services to or on behalf of clients. For example, personal information may be transferred to:

(a) Information Services Providers: members of the investment funds industry for the purposes of providing tax statements, client statements and fulfilling orders;

(b) Fund Services Providers: businesses that provide other goods and services to funds, fund management companies and dealers and/or their clients, such as data processors and record keepers; and

(c) Fund Intermediaries: intermediaries such as trustees and custodians.  Only the personal information necessary for these services will be provided by BlackRock Canada to these service providers. Every such disclosure shall be made subject to the protection measures specified below in section 6.7.


Commentary. Databases provided to third parties by BlackRock Canada should be limited to personal information required in order for the third party service provider to provide the specified services; otherwise, the consent to such sharing of information will have to be more explicit. For example, “any information we collect may be shared with our service providers” versus “information required for tax reporting may be shared with third parties engaged to provide tax reporting”.



Where a client objects to the sharing or use of personal information, the systems

upon which BlackRock Canada relies must permit the tracking of any restrictions or such sharing or use, i.e. the personal information must be “bonded” to the specific use so that it will not be included in databases used for collateral purposes. Note that information shared with third party service providers must similarly provide for such “bonding”.


Prior to using personal information for a new purpose, BlackRock Canada shall document this purpose.


Commentary. Entering into a new line of business may require that BlackRock Canada obtain new client consent to the sharing of personal information. For example, BlackRock Canada may obtain personal information about investors for the purposes of the administration of its clients’ accounts. If BlackRock Canada determined to enter into a strategic alliance with a financial service conglomerate which offers a broad range of products and services, BlackRock Canada would be required to obtain a new consent before personal information is shared with the financial conglomerate for marketing the latter’s products and services.


It is an objective of BlackRock Canada to develop guidelines and implement procedures with respect to the retention of personal information. These guidelines should include minimum and maximum retention periods. Personal information that has been used to make a decision about a client shall be retained long enough to allow the client access to the information after the decision has been made. There may be legislative requirements with respect to retention periods and counsel should be consulted as to these retention periods.

Personal information that is no longer required to fulfil the identified purposes should be destroyed, or erased in accordance with our record retention policy. BlackRock Canada should develop guidelines and implement procedures to govern the destruction of personal information, subject to legal and practical considerations relating to the destruction of archived information.


5.6. Accuracy

Personal information shall be as accurate, complete, and up-to-date as is necessary for the purposes for which it is to be used.


Commentary: The purpose of this principle is to strike a balance between repeated and frequent inquiries relating to BlackRock Canada’s clients’ personal information and the clients’ expectation that BlackRock Canada is acting upon personal information that is accurate, complete and up-to-date.


The extent to which personal information shall be accurate, complete and up-to-date will depend upon the use of information, taking into account the interests of the client. Information shall be sufficiently accurate, complete and up-to-date to minimize the possibility that inappropriate information may be used to make a decision about the client.


Commentary: At some point, personal information of a client collected by BlackRock Canada will become stale.  BlackRock Canada should establish procedures to ensure that personal information of its clients is reviewed and updated on a regular basis, depending on the nature of the actual use of such information. For example, it would be appropriate to verify mailing addresses for the purpose of delivering materials mandated by law. However, it would not be appropriate to update such information solely for the purpose of delivering marketing materials. Similarly, it would be inappropriate to update financial information of a client for the sole purpose of marketing BlackRock Canada’s products, but it would be appropriate to update such information for the purpose of determining the appropriateness of a client’s particular investment.


BlackRock Canada shall not routinely update personal information, unless such a process is necessary to fulfill the purposes for which it was collected.



In order to ensure that clients are not contacted more frequently than is necessary, BlackRock Canada’s update procedures relating to personal information should restrict to a minimum the gathering of personal information directly from clients.


Personal information that is used on an on-going basis, including information that is disclosed to third parties, should generally be accurate and up-to-date, unless limits to the requirement for accuracy are clearly set out.


Commentary: The procedures instituted by BlackRock Canada to keep personal information of its clients up-to-date shall also apply to information collected and properly disclosed to third parties. BlackRock should promptly notify such third parties of any change in the personal information previously delivered if such notification is appropriate.


5.7. Safeguards

Personal information shall be protected by security safeguards appropriate to the sensitivity of the information.


The security safeguards shall protect personal information against loss or theft, as well as unauthorized access, disclosure, copying, use, or modification. BlackRock Canada shall protect personal information regardless of the format in which it is held.


Commentary. The protection of personal information by security safeguards required under this principle begins with an assessment of all information received by, flowing through, or released by BlackRock Canada. In assessing all such information, BlackRock Canada must identify that information which is “personal information”.


The nature of the safeguards will vary depending on the sensitivity of the information that has been collected, the amount, distribution, and format of the information, and the method of storage. More sensitive information should be safeguarded by a higher level of protection.

The methods of protection should include:

(a) physical measures, for example, locked filing cabinets and restricted access to offices;

(b) organizational measures, for example, security clearances and limiting access on a “need-to- know” basis;

(c) technological measures, for example, the use of passwords and encryption; and

(d) contractual measures, for example, the use of non-disclosure agreements with third parties to which BlackRock Canada discloses personal information.

BlackRock Canada shall be responsible for making the importance of maintaining the confidentiality of personal information known to its agents, employees and any relevant third parties.

Care shall be used in the disposal or destruction of personal information, to prevent unauthorized parties from gaining access to the information.


5.8. Openness

BlackRock Canada shall make readily available to clients specific information about its policies and practices relating to the management of personal information.


Commentary. The requirement to specify information requires that disclosure be made to clients of BlackRock Canada’s policy on the collection and retention of personal information. This disclosure could be by way of a statement in the client’s account application form. Alternatively, it could be by way of a separate disclosure document given to the client with provision made for the client to consent to the proposed use or such disclosure could be posted on BlackRock’s websites if the client could be reasonably expected to review it there. If changes are proposed to be made in the use or retention of personal information to which the client has consented (for example, in order to market new products or as a result of a proposal to share data because of new strategic alliances), then a new, revised disclosure document should be provided and a new consent obtained.


BlackRock Canada shall be open about its policies and practices with respect to the management of personal information. Clients shall be able to acquire information about BlackRock Canada’s policies and practices without unreasonable effort. This information shall be made available in a form that is generally understandable.

The information made available shall include:

(a) the name or title and address of the person who is accountable for BlackRock Canada’s policies and practices (or how to obtain that information) and to whom complaints or inquiries can be forwarded;

(b) the means of gaining access to personal information held by BlackRock Canada;

(c) a description of the type of personal information held by BlackRock Canada, including a general account of its use; and

(d) a copy of any brochures or other information that explain BlackRock Canada’s policies, standards, or codes.

BlackRock Canada may make information on its policies and practices available in a variety of ways. The method chosen depends on the nature of the relevant business and other considerations. For example, BlackRock Canada may choose to make brochures available in its place of business, mail information to its customers, provide online access, or establish a toll-free telephone number.


5.9. Client Access

Upon request, a client shall be informed of the existence, use, and disclosure of his or her personal information and shall be given access to that information. A client shall be able to challenge the accuracy and completeness of the information and have it amended as appropriate.


Commentary: In certain situations, BlackRock Canada may not be able to provide access to all the personal information it holds about a client. Exceptions to the access requirement should be limited and specific. The reasons for denying access should be provided to the client upon request.  Exceptions may include prohibitive cost, personal information that contains references to other clients, information that cannot be disclosed for legal, security or commercial proprietary reasons, and information that is subject to solicitor-client or litigation privilege.


BlackRock Canada shall respond to a written request for client access with due diligence and in any case not later than 30 days after receipt of the request or any permitted extension by informing the client whether BlackRock Canada holds personal information about the client. The client shall be allowed access to this information unless to do so would:

  • reveal personal information about a third party,
  • breach a solicitor-client privilege,
  • potentially threaten the life or security of another individual,
  • disclose personal information collected to investigate a breach of an agreement or contravention of law, or
  • reveal information generated in the course of a dispute resolution process.

In addition, BlackRock Canada shall provide an account of the use that has been made or is being made of this information and an account of the third parties to which it has been disclosed. If such a request is denied, the client shall have the right to be given reasons for the denial.

Before BlackRock Canada provides an account of the existence, use, and disclosure of personal information of a particular client, the client may be required to provide sufficient information to permit BlackRock Canada to provide an account of the existence, use and disclosure of personal information.  The information provided shall only be used for this purpose.

Any account of third parties to which BlackRock Canada has disclosed personal information about a client should be as specific as possible. When it is not possible to provide a list of the organizations to which information about a client has actually been disclosed, a list of organizations to which such information may have been disclosed shall be provided to the client.

The requested information shall be provided or made available in a form that is generally understandable. For example, if abbreviations or codes are used to record information or other industry, or company-specific terminology, an explanation shall be provided. Access to personal information shall be given in an alternative format, such as to an individual with a sensory disability, if conversion into that format is reasonable and necessary in order for the individual to exercise rights of access.

When a client successfully demonstrates the inaccuracy or incompleteness of personal information, the information will be amended as required. Depending upon the nature of the information challenged, amendment could involve the correction, deletion or addition of information. Where appropriate, the amended information shall be transmitted to third parties having access to the information in question.

When a challenge is not resolved to the satisfaction of the client, the substance of the unresolved challenge shall be recorded. When appropriate, the existence of the unresolved challenge shall be transmitted to third parties having access to the information in question.


Commentary. The following steps should be considered to ensure compliance with this principle:

1. Conduct a review of all personal information held, its use and the third parties that receive this information.

2. Have policies and procedures in place that cover:

(i) What information is to be disclosed to clients upon request;

(ii) All exceptions and circumstances in which information should be withheld;

(iii) Process for clients to request access to their personal information;

(iv) How the information is to be communicated (verbal, letter, fax, e-mail) to the client and what if any explanatory information should accompany the correspondence;

(v) Which senior officer of the firm is responsible for resolving disputes with clients over the accuracy or completeness of their personal information;

(vi) Response time that is expected for inquiries of this nature; and

(vii) Escalation procedures in the case of disputes.

3. Identification of a specific individual or department to maintain a database or file of all disputes and the final outcome whether resolved or unresolved. Particular attention should be paid to those disputes that remain unresolved.

4. Creation of specific literature to inform clients of the right to access their personal information and the process to do so. If appropriate, this disclosure can be incorporated in existing client literature (e.g. prospectus)

5. Annual review of the unresolved disputes to determine if common issues exist such that changes to the policies and procedures should be considered.

6. Annual review and update of the policies and procedures.


6.10. Challenging Compliance

A client shall be able to address a challenge concerning compliance with the above principles to the designated individual or individuals accountable for BlackRock Canada’s compliance.


The individual accountable for BlackRock Canada’s compliance is discussed in section 6.1.

BlackRock Canada has put in place policies and procedures to receive and respond to complaints or inquiries about BlackRock Canada. including the handling of personal information. The Canada Complaint Policy and Procedures can be found in the policy library.  Initial complaints from investors in BlackRock Canada’s retail investment funds should be directed to the iShares Call Centre, 1-866-iShares (1-866-474-2737).  Initial complaints from “institutional” clients or their employees, officers, etc. should be directed to the client’s relationship manager and, if not resolved, elevated to the accountable individual.


BlackRock Canada shall inform clients who make inquiries or lodge complaints of the existence of relevant complaint procedures.


CommentaryClient relationship staff should be knowledgeable as to how a complaint should be initiated so that the information can be relayed to the client. Once initiated, confirmation of receipt of the complaint should be sent to the client. The individual(s) handling the complaint should inform the client of the procedure that will take place. This information could be delivered via a leaflet or in a letter or similar document. The document should also include the role, if any, of regulatory bodies or other overseeing organizations.


All complaints shall be investigated. If a complaint is found to be justified through either the internal or external complaint review process, appropriate measures shall be taken, including the amendment of policies and practices, if necessary.


Commentary. In such a case, the head of the Institutional Client Businessgroup, in consultation with counsel, should inform the client of the option to bring the complaint to the attention of the appropriate provincial or territorial securities regulator (although this should have already been outlined at the beginning of the complaint process). In that case, all pertinent information shall be forwarded to the appropriate securities regulator and assistance shall be provided to staff of the relevant securities regulatory authority in their investigation.